Psychology is an endlessly captivating and diverse field that delves into the complexities of the human mind and the intricate behavior of animals. With its numerous branches, it encompasses a vast array of topics, allowing exploration into virtually anything related to the human experience and the animal kingdom. Among these fascinating branches lies trans-species psychology, a less commonly discussed but equally enthralling area of study that offers unique insights into the interconnectedness between humans and other species.
Understanding Trans-Species Psychology
In contrast to the notion that “human” and “animal” are cognitively distinguished by the quality of self-awareness, trans-species psychology posits that there could in fact be common ties. Trans-species theorists suggest that the neurological components lending themselves to critical thinking and emotional depth are preserved between human and nonhuman cognition. Are you interested in looking more? Keep reading as we dig deeper into the world of uniquely human and animal behavior, brain processes, and more.
The science of sentience
Trans-species psychology is an argument for the existence of a shared base brain model, behavioral pattern, and overall mind map between humankind and nonhuman animals. The concept was coined by psychologist and ecologist Gay A. Bradshaw, who claims that major empirical data collected from years of study dating back to Charles Darwin’s early 19th-century naturalistic studies create strong implications of deeper mind complexity in nonhuman animals than what many may assume.
Trans-species psychology seeks to break down the false notion of a vast cognitive gap between humans and other species. It highlights the interconnectedness of animal minds and envisions a world where animal visions and animal kin are recognized and understood. In this paradigm, animals teach and learn from each other, fostering a more comprehensive understanding of different animal species. By embracing the principles of trans-species science, we can move towards a more compassionate and inclusive approach to studying and appreciating the cognitive capacities of all beings.
Complex emotional experiences in nonhuman mammals
In her extensive observations, Gay Bradshaw dedicated her research to understanding the complex emotional lives of non-human animals. Through her work, she and like-minded peers identified what they believe to be strong indicators of self-awareness, trauma, empathy, mourning, and various other significations of heightened mental processing in mammals. Among the most significant findings was the capacity of non-human animals to experience psychological trauma, which has become a recurrent point of support in Bradshaw’s research. She examined this aspect through meticulous case studies involving captive animals and also by closely observing undomesticated social animals in their natural habitats.
The revelation that non-human animals can suffer from conditions akin to post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has profound implications for applied animal welfare science and animal ethics. For far too long, the so-called animal models used in biomedical research often failed to recognize the deep psychological wounds inflicted upon these creatures. Bradshaw’s findings shed light on the hidden suffering that many animals endure in various contexts, including animal exploitation for scientific purposes.
By acknowledging and exploring the intricacies of non-human animals’ emotional experiences, Bradshaw challenges the notion that human animals are uniquely capable of complex communication abilities and heightened mental processing. In fact, brain scientists confirm that the neural structures and emotional centers in mammals are surprisingly similar, suggesting a common thread of experience across species.
The implications of Bradshaw’s work extend beyond the realm of research. They also have significant ramifications for animal ethics and the way we perceive other animals’ rightful place within our society. As the recognition of animals’ psychological complexities grows, so does the movement for animal sanctuaries and greater respect for their well-being.
This increased scientific understanding of the rich emotional lives of non-human animals calls for a reevaluation of how we treat and interact with them. The field of trans-species psychology, pioneered by Bradshaw, urges us to reconsider traditional paradigms and promotes more compassionate and empathetic approaches to our fellow creatures. Through her research, Bradshaw emphasizes the importance of extending our circle of empathy and recognizing the profound interconnectedness that exists among all living beings. Ultimately, the wisdom gained from trans-species psychology contributes to fostering a harmonious and mutually respectful coexistence between humans and other animals.
Wildlife and captivity observations
One of the highest-profile cases that Bradshaw made for her theory was related to the observation of elephants in the wild, particularly their reactions to poacher attacks and the subsequent fallout of their social structures. In a 2005 study, Bradshaw found that free-ranging elephants who had survived particularly traumatic hunting and dislocation experiences were far more prone to antisocial tendencies.
Normally a benign and mild-tempered animal, elephants who had been heavily victimized by poachers were shown to engage in more intra and inter-species violence. The elephants that had suffered much more significantly than others showed signs of extreme hypervigilance, and even a tendency to be less caring towards their offspring.
All of the abnormal and negative psychological symptoms exhibited by victimized elephants is what led Bradshaw to draw a comparison between their mental state and similar psychosocial patterns of human beings who suffer from PTSD.
One of Bradshaw’s more notable studies of PTSD-like symptoms in traumatized animals involved Jeannie, a chimpanzee that had been used for extensive biomedical testing with numerous controlled disease applications. Deprived of the social network that chimpanzees require to function normally, Jeannie developed habits of self-mutilation and an oscillating disposition between unresponsive trances and extreme aggression.
Origins of the term
The core of the term comes from its prefix, trans, which roughly translates to “across” or “beyond” in Latin; fittingly, this is used to represent the belief that the theory’s proponents have of emotional capacity and self-awareness being beyond the exclusive limitation of human cognition.
The common lines between human and nonhuman reactions to trauma have challenged long-standing assumptions that self-awareness and the capacity for grief solely distinguish human beings. Bradshaw’s groundbreaking work in trans-species psychology highlights that these emotional experiences are shared by other animals, blurring the lines that have historically separated humans from the rest of the animal kingdom. Her research underscores the interconnectedness of all living beings, emphasizing that we are not apart from or ascended above other species but are an embedded part of the greater biological map of life.
Through the trans-species perspective, Bradshaw advocates for a human-inclusive approach to understanding animals, recognizing that emotions and psychological wounds are not limited to our own species. This insight has far-reaching implications for fields such as developmental psychology, where recognizing the fundamental mechanisms of emotional processing in non-human primates can enrich our understanding of human minds.
By acknowledging that trauma and stress regulation are experienced in similar ways across species, we can revolutionize the way we view animals’ emotional lives. This deeper understanding can lead to innovative approaches in animal-assisted therapy and can inspire more humane and compassionate ways to treat trauma not only in humans but also in other animals. By embracing scientific evidence that supports the emotional complexity of animals, we pave the way for a more harmonious coexistence with the rest of the animal kingdom, encouraging a shift away from harmful practices and violence towards a more empathetic and mutually respectful relationship with all living beings.